Hepatitis is a medical condition defined by the inflammation of the liver and characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ. Hepatitis may occur with limited or no symptoms, but often leads to jaundice, poor appetite, malaise, liver diseases, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatitis C virus(HCV) is the cause of hepatitis C infection. This study was done to determine the prevalence of antibodies to HCV among health centre workers in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. 200 subjects were recruited, both male and female within the age of 18-65 years. Hundred were health centre workers and another 100 were non-health workers. Assay was done using HCV serum/plasma rapid immune-chromatographic kits developed by Abon biopharm (Hangzhou) Co.).The prevalence of HCV infection among health centre workers was found to be 4.0% and it was significantly higher than that of the non-health workers (1.0%). Male health centre workers had seroprevalence of 9.5% which is slightly higher than female health centre
workers with seroprevalence of 2.5%. Statistical analysis however, showed no significant difference (p>0.05). The result also shows highest prevalence of 11.1% amongst health centre workers of age range 41-45 years while low prevalence was observed among those aged ≤ 40 years and infection completely absent among those aged ≥ 46 years. There was statistical association (p <0.05) between age of the patients and prevalence of HCV antibodies. In conclusion this study has shown that prevalence of HCV infection was predominantly higher in health centre workers than in non-health workers in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.
Key words: Hepatitis C virus, health centre workers, non-health workers.
Monitoring fetal maternal incompatibility, a retrospective study – In a Spanish population attending the Parc de Salut, Mar in Barcelona
Mari Raya Hinojosa Raya, Pedro Carrasco Rupérez , Jéssica Estrela, Nádia Osório, Ana valado, Armando Caseiro, António Gabriel, Mercedes López Soques, Fernando Mendes
Int. J. Bio. Lab. Sci 2016 5:1-8 【Abstract】 【PDF】
Introduction: Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) continues to be a complication of early life in the newborn. Prophylaxis by administration of anti-D immunoglobulin IgG to Rh D negative pregnant women at 28 weeks and postpartum is a standard practice and the study of irregular antibodies (Ab) to all pregnant women has contributed to the detection of other Ab capable of inducing HDFN.
Aims: To determine the current frequency and incidence of maternal alloimmunization, severity of hemolytic disease and determine the frequency of Rh D negative pregnant resulting in newborn Rh D negative, where the administration of gamma globulin could have been avoided.
Methods: Retrospective study. We evaluated for two years, a total of 7087 tests in pregnant women and in 6224 newborns of the Blood Bank Parc Salut Mar of Barcelona. The positive results of indirect antiglobulin test and direct antiglobulin test were reviewed. The study of Ab was performed using plasma from pregnant women with 3-cell ID DiaCell I-II-III card. In positive tests it was used panel 11-cell ID with a DiaPanel autologous cell and 11-cell NaCl ID card, enzymatic assay and cold agglutinins and Media-Liss Coombs.
Results: The frequency of maternal active alloimmunization was 39 in 3.118 pregnant women (1.25 in 100). 2 cases of severe HDFN among 3.000 newborns were observed which yield a prevalence of severe hemolytic disease of 1 in 1500.
Conclusion: Most Ab detected corresponds to Ab against the Rh system. The anti-D Ab detected in our studies are mostly passive antibody administration remains IgG anti-D prophylaxis. The politics of fetal Rh-D genotyping in maternal plasma in all pregnant negative D should be implemented in order to prevent IgG anti-D administration of prophylaxis if the fetus is also D negative.
Key words: Newborn hemolytic disease, Rh-D, genotyping, maternal
An adequate level of health literacy (LHL) can help young people/students make better decisions about their own health, based on the capacity to obtain, process and understand basic health information and act appropriately. Furthermore, social behaviors influence the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) which are reflecting an increasing trend worldwide, especially in young people. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the LHL, sexual behaviors and STDs, among first-year students of higher education studies. Participants filled out a questionnaire
to assess social behaviors and LHL and a blood sample was collected for the screening of STDs. Students of health sciences tend to have a higher LHL, use more condoms and consume less alcohol before a sexual encounter comparatively to non-health sciences’ students. Our results also show that the use of pill contraception leads to a diminished use of condoms in a relationship with a
stable sexual partner. Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2) prevalence was 2.4 %. The positive cases of HSV-2 were associated with lower LHL, lower use of condoms and higher alcohol intake before a sexual encounter. The observed trend indicates that a higher LHL is associated with lower behavior risk and lower STDs prevalence.
Key words: Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Health literacy, Social behavior, Students