VITAMIN D LEVELS AND AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY
Antonia Mourtzikou, Marilena Stamouli, Perseas Houtopoulos, Athanasios Akalestos, Anastasios Skliris, Georgia Kontelia, Christos Kroupis, Paraskevi Moutsatsou, Emmanouil Mournianakis and Christiana Demetriou
Int. J. Bio. Lab. Sci  2017  6:17-23 Abstract】 PDF
 

Abstract
Background: Autoimmune diseases are a group of disorders with heterogeneity in epidemiology and in clinical phenotype, characterized by tissue and organ damage as a result of auto attack against self antigens. Vitamin D receptors have not only been identified in tissues that take part in calcium homeostasis, but also in a variety of cell groups that mainly interfere in immune regulation. Epidemiological
evidence has shown that low levels of vitamin D are related with various autoimmune diseases. The aim of our study was to compare vitamin D levels in patients with autoimmune diseases and in healthy controls. Materials and Methods: The sample group consisted of 100 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of an autoimmune disease and 40 healthy volunteers. Use of medications or treatments that decrease vitamin D levels or interfere with mass bone loss was a strict exclusion criterion. Results: Study results demonstrated statistically significant differences in vitamin D levels between patients and healthy controls, regardless of possible confounders such as gender, as well as complement C3, complement C4 and serum calcium levels. Since these factors presented statistically significant differences between patients and healthy controls, they were selected as potential
confounders. Other clinical or demographic characteristics which significantly affect vitamin D levels in patients were not observed. Conclusions: Overall, this study highlights the significant role of Vitamin D in autoimmune disease development for the first time in the Greek population. A statistically significant difference in vitamin D levels between patients and healthy controls was observed.
Key words: vitamin D, autoimmunity, autoimmune diseases, confounders

STUDY FOR MONITORING OF ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE TRENDS (SMART): A Surveillance of Gram-negative Bacilli Causing Urinary Tract Infections in Inpatients
Mohd Nazil Salleh, Siti Nur Lina Azman, Henkie Isahwan Ahmad Mulyadi Lai, Seri Ambal
Int. J. Bio. Lab. Sci  2017  6:12-16 Abstract】 PDF
 

Abstract
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection of one or more structures in the urinary system, most of which is caused by gram-negative bacteria. Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART), an ongoing global surveillance program, monitors the susceptibilities of gram-negative bacilli from inpatient with urinary tract infections (UTIs). Materials and Methods; Hospitalised patient (n=200) with clinical features of UTI were evaluated using R/E urine culture and sensitivity test. Isolated pathogen was differentiated using Micronaut-E Identification system whereas determination of in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility profile was performed using Micronaut-SB analysis. Results; Our results showed that the gram-negative bacilli from UTI isolates was Escherichia coli (52%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (23%), Proteus mirabilis (14%), Acinetobacter spp (5%) and Morganella morganii (5%). Sensitivity testing demonstrated that amikacin was the most effective antibiotic (95% susceptibility) followed by the carbapenem (imipenem) (86%), and ceftazidime (81%). The remaining susceptibility profile was cefaclor (57%), ciprofloxacin (62%) and cefixime (67%). Our findings also showed that the gram-negative bacilli had higher rate of resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanate acid and vancomycin. E. coli and K. pneumoniae are the most common pathogens for the development of UTI. Conclusions; Our findings also address the importance of continuing surveillance of gram-negative bacilli infection in UTI and monitoring the full trend in antimicrobial activities, new resistance mechanism(s), in order to implement effective infection control and ensure the reducing of the antimicrobial resistance.
Key words: Urinary tract infection, monitoring antimicrobial resistance trends (SMART)

Effect of Tobacco Smoking on Oral Microbial Flora and the Relationship with Oral Health in Calabar, Nigeria
Ofonime M. Ogba, Joshua J. Ewa, Oluwayemisi A. Olorode, Maurice Mbah
Int. J. Bio. Lab. Sci  2017  6:1-5 Abstract】 PDF
 

Abstract
Cigarette smoking is a public health problem. It decreases the commensal population of normal flora in the oral cavity leading to an increase of pathogenic microbes. It causes oral cancer, periodontitis, colour change on the teeth, halitosis and other health implications. The study was designed to determine the changes caused by tobacco smoking on the microbial profile and oral health conditions of cigarette smokers. One hundred and twenty subjects comprising 60 tobacco smokers and 60 non smokers were enrolled for the study. Oral swabs were collected from the oral cavity of the subjects using sterile swab sticks under standard aseptic methods. The specimens were subjected to microscopy and culture. Organisms were identified using standard microbiological techniques. Higher rates of microbes 86.7% were recovered from the oral cavity of smokers than non smokers 33.3%.There was a statistically significant effect of tobacco smoke on the oral flora of smokers (χ2 = 299.0, P = 0.0002). Staphylococcus aureus 13(25.0%) and Klebsiella pneumonia 10(19.2%) were more prevalent among smokers, while Klebsiella pneumoniae 4(20.0%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 4(20.0%) were the most prevalent bacterial isolates among the control subjects. Smokers had a diverse microbial colonization than non smokers. Smoking may have altered bacterial acquisition and oral mucosal colonization in favor of periodontal pathogens. The campaign against smoking should therefore be intensified as this may help to improve the oral health conditions of smokers.
Key words: Tobacco smoking, Microbial flora, oral health

Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Related Changes in Renal and Liver Functions in HIV Infection
Augusta Chinyere Nsonwu-Anyanwu, Sunday Jeremaiah Offor, Dianabasi King, Chidozie Elochukwu Agu, Edmund Egbe, Wofai Alfred Eyong, Anthony Essien Essessien, Chinyere Adanna Opara Usoro
Int. J. Bio. Lab. Sci  2017  6:6-11 Abstract】 PDF
 

Abstract
Alterations in liver and renal functions are among the complications of HIV infection, and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been implicated. The combined nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic effects of HAART were determined by assessing the renal and liver functions of HIV sero-positive subjects on HAART in a tertiary hospital. Liver enzymes activities; Aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST & ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma‐glutamyl transferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and renal function parameters; uric acid and creatinine clearance were determined in sera of 90 consenting subjects comprising of 30 HIV seropositive subjects on HAART, 30 HAART naive and 30 apparently healthy HIV sero-negative controls using colorimetric methods. CD4 + T cell count was done by flow cytometry while estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was determined by calculation. Anthropometric data and socio demographic information were obtained. Data was analyzed using ANOVA, LSD post hoc and Pearson’s correlation at p<0.05. The body mass index and CD4 + T cell count were significantly higher and AST, ALT, LDH and uric acid levels lower in HIV sero-negative controls compared to HIV on HAART and HAART naïve subjects. HIV on HAART had higher AST, ALT, GGT and LDH activities compared to HAART naïve. A significant negative correlation (r = -0.881, p = .000) was observed between uric acid and CD4 + T cell count in HAART naïve subjects only. HIV infection and HAART is associated with low grade hepatotoxicity but no impairment of renal functions in the population studied.
Key words: HIV, HAART, liver enzymes, renal function

International Journal of Biomedical Laboratory Science(IJBLS) Vol. 6, No. 1&2:1-23
December, 2017

 

CONTENTS

Original Articles
► Effect of Tobacco Smoking on Oral Microbial Flora and the Relationship with Oral Health in Calabar, Nigeria
Ofonime M. Ogba, Joshua J. Ewa, Oluwayemisi A. Olorode, Maurice Mbah
Int. J. Bio. Lab. Sci 2017 6:1-5 【Abstract】 【PDF】 
 
► Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Related Changes in Renal and Liver Functions in HIV Infection
Augusta Chinyere Nsonwu-Anyanwu, Sunday Jeremaiah Offor, Dianabasi King, Chidozie Elochukwu Agu, Edmund Egbe, Wofai Alfred Eyong, Anthony Essien Essessien, Chinyere Adanna Opara Usoro
Int. J. Bio. Lab. Sci 2017 6:6-11 【Abstract】 【PDF】
 
► STUDY FOR MONITORING OF ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE TRENDS (SMART): A Surveillance of Gram-negative Bacilli Causing Urinary Tract Infections in Inpatients
Mohd Nazil Salleh, Siti Nur Lina Azman, Henkie Isahwan Ahmad Mulyadi Lai, Seri Ambal
Int. J. Bio. Lab. Sci 2017 6:12-16 【Abstract】 【PDF】
 
► VITAMIN D LEVELS AND AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY
Antonia Mourtzikou, Marilena Stamouli, Perseas Houtopoulos, Athanasios Akalestos, Anastasios Skliris, Georgia Kontelia, Christos Kroupis, Paraskevi Moutsatsou, Emmanouil Mournianakis and Christiana Demetriou
Int. J. Bio. Lab. Sci 2017 6:17-23 【Abstract】 【PDF】
 

Published 【PDF】

2017 Volume 6. No1 2

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