Bacteriuric Profiles and CD4 Counts of Human Immunodeficient Virus (HIV) Seropositve Individuals Seeking Care in a Nigerian Health Facility
Zenoh A. Danjuma, Anne E.Asuquo, Thumamo Pokam, Emmanuel Ibeneme
Int. J. Bio. Lab. Sci 2019 1&2:1-9 【Abstract】 【PDF】
Background: A bacterial count of ≥105 CFU/mL is used to define significant bacteriuria. However, lower counts have been identified in symptomatic individuals with compromised immune status. The relationship between CD4 cells count and significant bacteriurial threshold was investigated in HIV sero-positive and sero-negative individuals in a healthcare setting in Jalingo - Nigeria. Methods: A cross sectional hospital- based study that included 220 HIV/AIDS positive and 180 HIV/AIDS negative individuals was conducted. A mid-stream clean catch urine and 3mLs of blood samples were collected from each subject. Significant bacteriuria was detected by the method of Leigh and William (1964) while the blood samples were assayed for CD4 cell counts using Partec cyflow counter. Results: Of the 220 urine samples obtained from HIV/AIDS sero-positive subjects, 143 (65%) yielded bacterial growth compared to 82(45.6%) of the 180 obtained from sero-negative or control group (p= 0.000096). Though higher percentage of significant bacteriuria (≥105 CFU/mL) was observed among 62(43.4%) of the 143 culture positive test subjects compared to 33(40.2%) of the 82 control, the statistical analysis is not significant (p=0.056). Overall, 23(16%) of the 143 HIV/AIDS test subjects were symptomatic for UTIs, compared to 12(14.6%) of the 82 control participants (p=0.51). Among those with significant bacteriuria, symptomatic cases were recorded in 13/62(21%) test subjects and 8/33(24%) control subjects (p=0.029). Symptomatic UTIs were observed only among those with bacteria count of ≥104 CFU/mL in the control subjects, in the test subjects however, subject exhibited symptoms even at low bacterial count of ≤103 CFU/mL. Conclusion: CD4 cell levels may have little or no effect on bacteriuria, but with CD4 count of ≤ 200 cells/mm3, test subjects are more likely to exhibit symptoms of UTIs even at a low bacterial count.
Key words: Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs), Significant bacteriuria, CD4 Cells, Symptomatic UTI, HIV/AIDS