Evaluation of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets Mass Distribution Campaign and Malaria Among Under-Five Children in Mayo Belwa L.G.A., Adamawa State, Nigeria
Atimi Atinga, Philemon Babylon, Tirah Galaya, Emmanuel C.Obiano
Int. J. Bio. Lab. Sci 2019 1&2:28-33 【Abstract】 【PDF】 

Abstract
Background: Nigeria carries the greatest malaria burden among countries in the world. As part of the National Malaria Control Strategic Plan, free long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) were distributed in all the 21 Local Governments Areas of Adamawa states of Nigeria through mass campaign in September 2017. This was due to the backdrop of recurrent cases of about 3.3% increase in malaria cases before LLINs the campaign. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between LLINs distribution campaign and under-five child malaria in Mayo Belwa LGA. Methods: Percentage of children malaria infection was ascertained from August 2016 to August 2017 and a cross-sectional study, 523 patients aged 0-5 years with fever or history of fever in the previous 72hours were enrolled. Relevant information was obtained and recorded using a questionnaire. Thick and thin films were prepared from a finger or heel prick for each of the patients and subjected to microscopy. Result: The prevalence of malaria was 37.7% while 49.3% was seen prior to the mass campaign. Nevertheless, sex, parents educational level, socio- economic class, temperature at presentation as well as ownership of insecticide treated nets had no significant effect on the prevalence of malaria (p>0.05). Conclusion: The observed protective effects on child malaria of these campaigns were encouraging and need to be corroborated by future effectiveness studies. Results also show that improving community-level maternal knowledge through appropriate channels might be helpful in preventing child malaria in Nigeria.
Key words: Children malaria, Insecticide-treated nets, Campaign, Evaluation
Ownership, Perception, and Usage of Long-Lasting Insecticide-Treated Net (LLIN) During Dry Season Among Residents of Kola Ward in Guyuk L.G.A of Adamawa State
Babylon Philemon, Atimi Atinga, Emmanuel C.Obiano, Tirah Galaya, Zenoh A.Danjuma
Int. J. Bio. Lab. Sci 2019 1&2:22-27 【Abstract】 【PDF】

 

Abstract
Background: Malaria is caused by one of four species of Plasmodium parasites that are transmitted by various species of mosquitoes in the genus Anopheles. One of the major ways to control malaria is through the use of long-lasting insecticide-treated net (LLIN) that prevents these mosquitoes from feeding on people. LLIN use has been shown to reduce illness and death drastically from malaria across a range of transmission environments. Methods: This research study was aimed to ascertain the level of ownership, perception and usage of long lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN) during dry season in the month of December by the residents of Kola Ward in Guyuk L.G.A of Adamawa State. A structured questionnaire was administered to two hundred and thirty (230) willingly volunteer participants residing within the study area. Result: The result of this study revealed that out of the total (230) of the participants enrolled in this study 140 (60.87%) of them owned LLIN while 90 (39.13%) do not; 196 (85.22%) were of the view that using LLIN goes a long way in preventing malaria infection while 34 (14.78%) were of the view that using it or not does not matter during dry season; 86 (37.39%) were using LLIN while 144 (62.61%) were not using it during the period; 87 (60.44%) said there was no mosquito bite during that period that is why they are not using it, 30 (20.14%) said there is discomfort while sleeping inside LLIN, 20 (13.89%) said they have difficulty hanging it and 7 (4.86%) said they were avoiding using it because it has adverse effects. However, the result of chi-square test revealed that there was a significant difference (P<0.05) in all the responses made by the participants. Conclusion & Recommendation: The study concludes that though the level of ownership of LLIN is high in the study area, usage does not meet up to the standard coverage rate. It is recommended that more effort need to be put in place by the government, NGOs, concern individuals and health workers in the state to increase the level of awareness on the need to use LLIN even during dry season.
Key words: Long Lasting Insecticide-treated nets (LLIN), Malaria and Participants
Bacteriuric Profiles and CD4 Counts of Human Immunodeficient Virus (HIV) Seropositve Individuals Seeking Care in a Nigerian Health Facility
Zenoh A. Danjuma, Anne E.Asuquo, Thumamo Pokam, Emmanuel Ibeneme
Int. J. Bio. Lab. Sci 2019 1&2:1-9 【Abstract】 【PDF】 

Abstract
Background: A bacterial count of ≥105 CFU/mL is used to define significant bacteriuria. However, lower counts have been identified in symptomatic individuals with compromised immune status. The relationship between CD4 cells count and significant bacteriurial threshold was investigated in HIV sero-positive and sero-negative individuals in a healthcare setting in Jalingo - Nigeria. Methods: A cross sectional hospital- based study that included 220 HIV/AIDS positive and 180 HIV/AIDS negative individuals was conducted. A mid-stream clean catch urine and 3mLs of blood samples were collected from each subject. Significant bacteriuria was detected by the method of Leigh and William (1964) while the blood samples were assayed for CD4 cell counts using Partec cyflow counter. Results: Of the 220 urine samples obtained from HIV/AIDS sero-positive subjects, 143 (65%) yielded bacterial growth compared to 82(45.6%) of the 180 obtained from sero-negative or control group (p= 0.000096). Though higher percentage of significant bacteriuria (≥105 CFU/mL) was observed among 62(43.4%) of the 143 culture positive test subjects compared to 33(40.2%) of the 82 control, the statistical analysis is not significant (p=0.056). Overall, 23(16%) of the 143 HIV/AIDS test subjects were symptomatic for UTIs, compared to 12(14.6%) of the 82 control participants (p=0.51). Among those with significant bacteriuria, symptomatic cases were recorded in 13/62(21%) test subjects and 8/33(24%) control subjects (p=0.029). Symptomatic UTIs were observed only among those with bacteria count of ≥104 CFU/mL in the control subjects, in the test subjects however, subject exhibited symptoms even at low bacterial count of ≤103 CFU/mL. Conclusion: CD4 cell levels may have little or no effect on bacteriuria, but with CD4 count of ≤ 200 cells/mm3, test subjects are more likely to exhibit symptoms of UTIs even at a low bacterial count.
Key words: Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs), Significant bacteriuria, CD4 Cells, Symptomatic UTI, HIV/AIDS
Salivary and Serum Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9 and Their Tissue Inhibitors (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 in Young Obesity
Fréderic Mota, Ana Filipa Silva, Daniela Almeida, Carla Oliveira, Tiago Luís, Carlos Tavares, João Paulo Figueiredo, Rui Gonçalves, e Armando Caseiro
Int. J. Bio. Lab. Sci 2019 1&2:10-21 【Abstract】 【PDF】 

 

Abstract
Objective: To assess the levels of MMP-9, MMP-2, and TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, and the MMP-9/TIMP-1, MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratios in serum and saliva in young individuals with obesity without comorbidities. Methods: 24 people with obesity, 24 overweight and 24 normal weight individuals were studied and grouped by body fat mass percentage by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Salivary and serum MMPs and TIMPs levels were measured by slot-blot analysis. Results: Individuals with obesity and overweight had higher MMP-9 levels in saliva comparing to normal weight (p ˂0.01 and p ˂0.05 respectively). People with obesity had higher MMP-2 levels than normal weight in saliva (p ˂0.05). Overweight had lower TIMP-1 levels in saliva than normal weight (p ˂0.05). We found higher net MMP-9 activity (higher MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio) in saliva (p ˂0.01) and higher activity of MMP-2 (MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio) in serum in overweight comparing to normal weight (p ˂0.05). Overall, no significant differences were found in serum results. Conclusion: Obesity is a chronic inflammatory disorder early associated with dysregulated MMP-9 and MMP-2 activity affecting oral and systemic health.
Key words: Obesity, Matrix Metalloproteinases, Saliva, Inflammation
International Journal of Biomedical Laboratory Science(IJBLS) Vol. 8, No. 1&2:1-33
December, 2019

 

CONTENTS

Original Articles
► Bacteriuric Profiles and CD4 Counts of Human Immunodeficient Virus (HIV) Seropositve Individuals Seeking Care in a Nigerian Health Facility
Zenoh A. Danjuma, Anne E.Asuquo, Thumamo Pokam, Emmanuel Ibeneme
Int. J. Bio. Lab. Sci 2019 1&2:1-9 【Abstract】 【PDF】 
 
► Salivary and Serum Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9 and Their Tissue Inhibitors (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 in Young Obesity
Fréderic Mota, Ana Filipa Silva, Daniela Almeida, Carla Oliveira, Tiago Luís, Carlos Tavares, João Paulo Figueiredo, Rui Gonçalves, e Armando Caseiro
Int. J. Bio. Lab. Sci 2019 1&2:10-21 【Abstract】 【PDF】
 
► Ownership, Perception, and Usage of Long-Lasting Insecticide-Treated Net (LLIN) During Dry Season Among Residents of Kola Ward in Guyuk L.G.A of Adamawa State
Babylon Philemon, Atimi Atinga, Emmanuel C.Obiano, Tirah Galaya, Zenoh A.Danjuma
Int. J. Bio. Lab. Sci 2019 1&2:22-27 【Abstract】 【PDF】
 
► Evaluation of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets Mass Distribution Campaign and Malaria Among Under-Five Children in Mayo Belwa L.G.A., Adamawa State, Nigeria
Atimi Atinga, Philemon Babylon, Tirah Galaya, Emmanuel C.Obiano
Int. J. Bio. Lab. Sci 2019 1&2:28-33 【Abstract】 【PDF】
 

Published 【PDF】

2019 Vol. 8 No.1 2

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